GRE写作句式多样性例句展示与收集
发表于:2016-02-15 11:43     类型:GRE资讯

tesolchina

寄托GRE作文版特约嘉宾,美国圣路易华盛顿大学本科(历史),牛津大学硕士(教育学),香港城市大学博士在读(英语研究)

GRE作文明确要求句式多样性,比如6分的描述中提到

conveys ideas fluently and precisely, using effective vocabulary and sentence variety


有意识的学习和模仿好的句型不仅可以改善自己文章的句式多样性,还可以自然的减少句子结构上的失误,对于拿高分是非常重要的。本楼为目录,注明每个句型所在的楼层。在各楼层我会收集一些ETS范文和我自己的文章中的例句,同时也希望大家在平时阅读中关注这些句型,在写作中有意识的模仿这些句型,将找到的范文例句和自己写的比较好的句子以回帖的形式在论坛上分享。我在批改的过程中也会关注大家这方面的努力,提供必要的协助和指导。  

基于我对ETS范文的分析和我自己的经验,以下是一些比较重要的句型,我会陆续开帖讨论。

  • it is 引出不定式或从句 (2楼)

  • there be 句型 (3楼)

  • 不定式做补足语、作主语、作表语 (4楼)

  • 现在分词与过去分词后置  (5楼)

  • 插入语 (6楼)

  • 并列结构  (7楼)

  • 名词性从句 (8楼)  

  • 动宾搭配 (9楼) 


这里的大部分句型都可以通过计算机程序自动识别。我正在开发一款软件识别这些句型,争取在9月份之前能够面世。欢迎有Java或Python编程经验的同学私信和我联系。 

It is引出不定式和从句

这个句型大家应该都很熟悉,根据Hinkel(2002)的研究,中国学生使用这个句型的频率远低于母语是英语的学生。

It is not uncommon for some to argue that, in the world in which we live, corporations have a responsibility to society and to the environment in which they operate.

这里it is 引出的是to argue这个不定式 
通常在it is后面会跟一个形容词来表达作者对某件事的态度或评价  这个句型的好处在于可以比较客观 没有I 另外可以提前把态度、立场表明  


It is argued that, in order to prevent power abuse and revitalize the organizations, those in the leadership positions should quit their jobs after a certain number of years.

这个句子里的it is 引出的是一个从句 这种句型用来总结issue的命题或者argument的结论都是很适合的  
 

There be 句型

There be句型其实并不是很值得推崇的句型,但是有些同学经常把这个句型写错,所以有必要在这里强调一下。其实there be的本质是一个倒装结构,只是我们初中学这个句型的时候理解能力有限,老师不会跟我们讲这么复杂。

These questions assume that there is some infallible committee that can foresee all and know what knowledge will be important in everyone’s lives.

就there is some infallible committee that 这个结构而言 真正的主语是committee 还原倒装结构应该是committee is there ... 
因此committee后面是绝对不能直接跟动词的 
通常会引出一个that从句

或者像这个句子 
There is no person, no group, no committee capable of deciding what knowledge is necessary.
名词后面后置一个形容词 

这个句型一篇文章里用个1-2次就差不多了,关键是不要用错。

    

不定式做补语、主语和表语

不定式就是to后面跟动词原形,这个结构我们也是很熟悉的。最常见的用法是放在名词或者动词的后面作为补语(这个说法可能不是很准确,请语法大牛指正)

A nation should require all of its students to study the same national curriculum until they enter college.

这里的不定式 to study ... 是对 require sb的补充说明 

If every teacher is forced to teach a certain text, the government need only change that text to misinform an entire generation.

这里to misinform 作为change that text 的后果或目的  

不定式除了做补语,还可以做主语和表语,这两种用法可能在同学的习作中比较少,希望大家以后写作时有意识的练习 

If the very purpose of a corporation is to generate profits, and the obligation to adhere to safety expectations established by law cuts into those profits, then to expect corporations to embrace such practices beyond what is required is to presume that they willingly engage in an inherently self- destructive process: the unnecessary lowering of profits.

这里的to generate profits和to presume that都是be动词后面的表语 而to expect corporations ...则是句子的主语 

用不定式做主语和表语可以让我们用主系表这个很简单的句型来描述一些比较复杂的动作或行为,值得我们学习。   

   

现在分词与过去分词后置


现在分词和过去分词都是我们初中就学过的语法结构,主要是用在现在进行时和完成时及被动语态中。而在实际的写作中,现在分词和过去分词都会放在名词的后面来对名词进行修饰。这种结构对于扩展句子、增加句子的信息量是很有帮助的。

it is a company built around finding alternative forms of energy
比如这个句子里的built就是一个过去分词后置修饰company而紧接其后的就是一个现在分词后置同样修饰company  

When interacting with our parents, our partners and our children, we do not always follow any rules prescribed by any social groups and we do not need to perform in a way to meet the expectations of the larger community.

这里prescribed后置修饰rules 而interacting则由when引出 虽然不是后置修饰语 也是现在分词的另一种用法 

Overall speaking, it is reasonable to claim that we define ourselves primarily through participating in different communities or social groups while playing different roles following the prescribed rules.

这里有两个现在分词和while及介词through的用法值得参考
注意这里through后面严格来讲是动名词,但是由于都是ing的结构,这里就不严格区分了 

     

插入语

插入语可以说是逼格很高的一种用法。通常是在一个完整的句子中间加上两个逗号或者破折号,插入一个短语或者从句来补充说明前面的内容。这样的用法可以把句子拉长、丰富内容,而且也可以略作停顿,给句子的节奏带来某些变化。 

Jeffrey Sachs, one of the architects of the UN Millennium Development Goals, based his ideas on emergency care triage techniques.
对某人物的身份进行补充介绍

Given the history of the human race, there will be no limit to the number of problems, both new and old, for us to tackle.
对某事物(问题)的属性进行界定

Of course, and this is why agencies such as the EPA were established and why governments—federal, state, and local—are expected to monitor such companies to ensure that such practices fall within the boundaries of legal expectations.
同上 

It is argued that, in order to prevent power abuse and revitalize the organizations, those in the leadership positions should quit their jobs after a certain number of years.
指出目的     


并列结构


并列结构是指由and/or/but或逗号、分号所分隔的但是语法性质相同的结构。比较普通的并列结构包括名词、形容词、动词和副词的并列结构,进阶的包括从句和主句的并列结构。并列结构是写作中为了达到扩展内容的实际需要而常用的手段,其基本的原则在于语法结构的性质要相同因此才算得上并列,而在实际使用中往往对学生的词汇能力及写作的干货有较高的要求。  

并列结构的例子几乎俯首皆是,大家可以在范文中多留意,并检查下自己的习作中有没有使用。 

But the assumption that corporations have an inherent obligation or responsibility to goabove and beyond that to actively PROMOTE the environment and the well-being of society is absurd.

这个句子里就出现了名词、介词的并列结构  

If the very purpose of a corporation is to generate profits, and the obligation to adhere to safety expectations established by law cuts into those profits, then to expect corporations to embrace such practices beyond what is required is to presume that they willingly engage in an inherently self- destructive process: the unnecessary lowering of profits.

这个句子里有条件状语从句的并列结构即使范文中也不太多见  

But that role must be fulfilled by a watchdog, not the corporation itself, and those expectations must be imposed UPON the corporations, not expected FROM them.

本句里除了有名词和谓语动词的并列结构外,本身是由两个独立的并列句组成的。  

对于很多追求写长难句的同学,我的建议是量力而为。如果真的要写的话,最好也先看看范文中的长难句是怎样的结构,然后依葫芦画瓢。切忌任意自由发挥。 

    

名词性从句

状语从句和定语从句我在这里就不多说了,名词性从句值得讲一下。 小时候学语法不努力,对于同位语从句什么的搞得不是很清楚,请语法大牛指正。这里将所有扮演名词角色的从句一律归为名词性从句(noun clause)。 

If the very purpose of a corporation is to generate profits, and the obligation to adhere to safety expectations established by law cuts into those profits, then to expect corporations to embrace such practices beyond what is required is to presume that they willingly engage in an inherently self- destructive process: the unnecessary lowering of profits.

本句里面有两个名词性从句,前一个做beyond的宾语,后一个由presume引出。这里一短一长的对比也在提醒我们从句是可长可短的。  

the immediate expectation of the investor is that he himself will see dividends, or profits, from the investment he has made.

这里名词性从句作表语,或称表语从句 后面还跟了一个短小的定语从句 

Of course, and this is why agencies such as the EPA were established and why governments—federal, state, and local—are expected to monitor such companies to ensure that such practices fall within the boundaries of legal expectations.

表语从句的并列结构-难得一见! 

Treehuggers everywhere should be pleased that environmental protections exist
这里是过去分词引出的名词性从句 和前面的还有些不同 

But the assumption that corporations have an inherent obligation or responsibility to go above and beyond that to actively PROMOTE the environment and the well-being of society is absurd.

这个是传说中的同位语从句?某些名词是可以引出这种从句的- claim, belief, fact, notion 通过计算机对语料库检索可以查出N多这种句子 

名词性从句还可以作主语 以后见到例句再更新吧     


动宾搭配

搭配是一个很头疼的问题,我的博士论文的其中一章就是关注动词和名词的搭配。严格来说这不是什么句型,但是在写作中动宾搭配用得不恰当会直接暴露你的写作水平。因此列出一项,希望大家学习范文和自己写文章时留意。 


Any and all [corporations should be expected] to [temper their pursuit] of profit with the necessity of [following those safeguards] that have been legislated as protections.

随便一个句子里就有好几个动宾搭配,已用方括号和黑体标出。 
并不是任意一组动词和名词都可以搭配的,因此,我在批改时会指出搭配的错误,也希望大家写作时留意。    


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